mongodb sharding cluster(分片集群)

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所属分类:mongodb

MongoDB的auto-sharding功能是指mongodb通过mongos自动建立一个水平扩展的数据库集群系统,将数据库分表存储在sharding的各个节点上。

通过把Sharding和Replica Sets相结合,可以搭建一个分布式的,高可用性,自动水平扩展的集群。

要构建MongoDB Sharding Cluster,需要三种角色:

Shard Server: mongod 实例, 使用 Replica Sets,确保每个数据节点都具有备份、自动容错转移、自动恢复能力。用于存储实际的数据块,实际生产环境中一个shard server角色可由几台机器组个一个relica set承担,防止主机单点故障

Config Server: mongod 实例,使用 3 个配置服务器,确保元数据完整性(two-phase commit)。存储了整个 Cluster Metadata,其中包括 chunk 信息。

Route Server: mongos 实例,配合 LVS,实现负载平衡,提高接入性能(high performance)。前端路由,客户端由此接入,且让整个集群看上去像单一数据库,前端应用可以透明使用。

环境如下:

192.168.198.131

shard1:10001

shard2:10002

shard3:10003

config1:20000

192.168.198.129

shard1:10001

shard2:10002

shard3:10003

config2:20000

192.168.198.132

shard1:10001

shard2:10002

shard3:10003

config3:20000

192.168.198.133

mongos:30000

分别在三台服务器上安装mongod服务,安装如下:

# wget http://fastdl.mongodb.org/linux/mongodb-linux-x86_64-2.0.3.tgz

# tar zxvf mongodb-linux-x86_64-2.0.3.tgz -C ../software/

# ln -s mongodb-linux-x86_64-2.0.3 /usr/local/mongodb

# useradd mongodb

# mkdir -p /data/mongodb/shard1

# mkdir -p /data/mongodb/shard2

# mkdir -p /data/mongodb/shard3

# mkdir -p /data/mongodb/config1

配置shard1的replica set

192.168.198.131

# cd /usr/local/mongodb/bin

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard1 --port 10001 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard1 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard1/shard1.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.129

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard1 --port 10001 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard1 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard1/shard1.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.132

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard1 --port 10001 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard1 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard1/shard1.log --logappend --fork

连接到192.168.198.131

# ./mongo --port 10001

> config={_id:"shard1",members:[

... {_id:0,host:"192.168.198.131:10001"},

... {_id:1,host:"192.168.198.129:10001"},

... {_id:2,host:"192.168.198.132:10001"}]

... }

> rs.initiate(config)

{

"info" : "Config now saved locally. Should come online in about a minute.",

"ok" : 1

}

PRIMARY> rs.status()

{

"set" : "shard1",

"date" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:55Z"),

"myState" : 1,

"members" : [

{

"_id" : 0,

"name" : "192.168.198.131:10001",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 1,

"stateStr" : "PRIMARY",

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330655827000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:07Z"),

"self" : true

},

{

"_id" : 1,

"name" : "192.168.198.129:10001",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 36,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330655827000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:07Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:53Z"),

"pingMs" : 0

},

{

"_id" : 2,

"name" : "192.168.198.132:10001",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 36,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330655827000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:07Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:37:53Z"),

"pingMs" : 466553

}

],

"ok" : 1

}

配置shard2的replica set

192.168.198.129

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard2 --port 10002 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard2 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard2/shard2.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.131

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard2 --port 10002 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard2 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard2/shard2.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.132

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard2 --port 10002 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard2 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard2/shard2.log --logappend --fork

连接到192.168.198.129

# ./mongo --port 10002

> config={_id:"shard2",members:[

... {_id:0,host:"192.168.198.129:10002"},

... {_id:1,host:"192.168.198.131:10002"},

... {_id:2,host:"192.168.198.132:10002"}]

... }

{

"_id" : "shard2",

"members" : [

{

"_id" : 0,

"host" : "192.168.198.129:10002"

},

{

"_id" : 1,

"host" : "192.168.198.131:10002"

},

{

"_id" : 2,

"host" : "192.168.198.132:10002"

}

]

}

> rs.initiate(config)

{

"info" : "Config now saved locally. Should come online in about a minute.",

"ok" : 1

}

> rs.status()

{

"set" : "shard2",

"date" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:53:17Z"),

"myState" : 1,

"members" : [

{

"_id" : 0,

"name" : "192.168.198.129:10002",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 1,

"stateStr" : "PRIMARY",

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330656717000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:51:57Z"),

"self" : true

},

{

"_id" : 1,

"name" : "192.168.198.131:10002",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 73,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330656717000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:51:57Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:53:17Z"),

"pingMs" : 1

},

{

"_id" : 2,

"name" : "192.168.198.132:10002",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 73,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330656717000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:51:57Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T02:53:17Z"),

"pingMs" : 209906

}

],

"ok" : 1

}

配置shard3的replica set

192.168.198.132

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard3 --port 10003 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard3 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard3/shard3.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.129

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard3 --port 10003 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard3 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard3/shard3.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.131

# ./mongod --shardsvr --replSet shard3 --port 10003 --dbpath /data/mongodb/shard3 --oplogSize 100 --logpath /data/mongodb/shard3/shard3.log --logappend --fork

连接到192.168.198.132

# ./mongo --port 10003

> config={_id:"shard3",members:[

... {_id:0,host:"192.168.198.132:10003"},

... {_id:1,host:"192.168.198.131:10003"},

... {_id:2,host:"192.168.198.129:10003"}]

... }

{

"_id" : "shard3",

"members" : [

{

"_id" : 0,

"host" : "192.168.198.132:10003"

},

{

"_id" : 1,

"host" : "192.168.198.131:10003"

},

{

"_id" : 2,

"host" : "192.168.198.129:10003"

}

]

}

> rs.initiate(config)

{

"info" : "Config now saved locally. Should come online in about a minute.",

"ok" : 1

}

> rs.status()

{

"set" : "shard3",

"date" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:52Z"),

"myState" : 1,

"members" : [

{

"_id" : 0,

"name" : "192.168.198.132:10003",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 1,

"stateStr" : "PRIMARY",

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330657451000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:11Z"),

"self" : true

},

{

"_id" : 1,

"name" : "192.168.198.131:10003",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 39,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330657451000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:11Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:52Z"),

"pingMs" : 0

},

{

"_id" : 2,

"name" : "192.168.198.129:10003",

"health" : 1,

"state" : 2,

"stateStr" : "SECONDARY",

"uptime" : 39,

"optime" : {

"t" : 1330657451000,

"i" : 1

},

"optimeDate" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:11Z"),

"lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2012-03-02T03:04:52Z"),

"pingMs" : 0

}

],

"ok" : 1

}

配置config

192.168.198.131

# ./mongod --configsvr --dbpath /data/mongodb/config1 --port 20000 --logpath /data/mongodb/config1/config1.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.129

# ./mongod --configsvr --dbpath /data/mongodb/config2 --port 20000 --logpath /data/mongodb/config2/config2.log --logappend --fork

192.168.198.132

# ./mongod --configsvr --dbpath /data/mongodb/config3 --port 20000 --logpath /data/mongodb/config3/config3.log --logappend --fork

配置mongos

# ./mongos --configdb 192.168.198.131:20000,192.168.198.129:20000,192.168.198.132:20000 --port 30000 --chunkSize 1 --logpath /data/mongodb/mongos.log --logappend --fork

配置shard cluster

# ./mongo --port 30000

mongos> use admin

switched to db admin

加入shards

mongos> db.runCommand({addshard:"shard1/192.168.198.131:10001,192.168.198.129:10001,192.168.198.132:10001"});

{ "shardAdded" : "shard1", "ok" : 1 }

mongos> db.runCommand({addshard:"shard2/192.168.198.131:10002,192.168.198.129:10002,192.168.198.132:10002"});

{ "shardAdded" : "shard2", "ok" : 1 }

mongos> db.runCommand({addshard:"shard3/192.168.198.131:10003,192.168.198.129:10003,192.168.198.132:10003"});

{ "shardAdded" : "shard3", "ok" : 1 }

列出shards

mongos> db.runCommand({listshards:1})

{

"shards" : [

{

"_id" : "shard1",

"host" : "shard1/192.168.198.129:10001,192.168.198.131:10001,192.168.198.132:10001"

},

{

"_id" : "shard2",

"host" : "shard2/192.168.198.129:10002,192.168.198.131:10002,192.168.198.132:10002"

},

{

"_id" : "shard3",

"host" : "shard3/192.168.198.129:10003,192.168.198.131:10003,192.168.198.132:10003"

}

],

"ok" : 1

}

激活数据库分片

mongos> db.runCommand({enablesharding:"test"});

{ "ok" : 1 }

通过以上命令,可以将数据库test跨shard,如果不执行,数据库只会存放在一个shard,一旦激活数据库分片,数据库中的不同的collection将被存放在不同的shard上,但一个collection仍旧存放在同一个shard上,要使collection也分片,需对collection做些其他操作。

collection分片

mongos> db.runCommand({shardcollection:"test.data",key:{_id:1}})

{ "collectionsharded" : "test.data", "ok" : 1 }

分片的collection只能有一个在分片key上的唯一索引,其他唯一索引不被允许。

查看shard信息

mongos> printShardingStatus()

--- Sharding Status ---

sharding version: { "_id" : 1, "version" : 3 }

shards:

{ "_id" : "shard1", "host" : "shard1/192.168.198.129:10001,192.168.198.131:10001,192.168.198.132:10001" }

{ "_id" : "shard2", "host" : "shard2/192.168.198.129:10002,192.168.198.131:10002,192.168.198.132:10002" }

{ "_id" : "shard3", "host" : "shard3/192.168.198.129:10003,192.168.198.131:10003,192.168.198.132:10003" }

databases:

{ "_id" : "admin", "partitioned" : false, "primary" : "config" }

{ "_id" : "test", "partitioned" : true, "primary" : "shard1" }

test.data chunks:

shard1 1

{ "_id" : { $minKey : 1 } } -->> { "_id" : { $maxKey : 1 } } on : shard1 { "t" : 1000, "i" : 0 }

mongos> use test

switched to db test

mongos> db.data.stats()

{

"sharded" : true,

"flags" : 1,

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 0,

"numExtents" : 1,

"size" : 0,

"storageSize" : 8192,

"totalIndexSize" : 8176,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 8176

},

"avgObjSize" : 0,

"nindexes" : 1,

"nchunks" : 1,

"shards" : {

"shard1" : {

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 0,

"size" : 0,

"storageSize" : 8192,

"numExtents" : 1,

"nindexes" : 1,

"lastExtentSize" : 8192,

"paddingFactor" : 1,

"flags" : 1,

"totalIndexSize" : 8176,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 8176

},

"ok" : 1

}

},

"ok" : 1

}

测试:插入大量数据

mongos> for (var i=1;i<=500000;i++) db.data.save ({_id:i,value:"www.ttlsa.com"})

mongos> printShardingStatus()

--- Sharding Status ---

sharding version: { "_id" : 1, "version" : 3 }

shards:

{ "_id" : "shard1", "host" : "shard1/192.168.198.129:10001,192.168.198.131:10001,192.168.198.132:10001" }

{ "_id" : "shard2", "host" : "shard2/192.168.198.129:10002,192.168.198.131:10002,192.168.198.132:10002" }

{ "_id" : "shard3", "host" : "shard3/192.168.198.129:10003,192.168.198.131:10003,192.168.198.132:10003" }

databases:

{ "_id" : "admin", "partitioned" : false, "primary" : "config" }

{ "_id" : "test", "partitioned" : true, "primary" : "shard1" }

test.data chunks:

shard1 6

shard2 5

shard3 11

too many chunks to print, use verbose if you want to force print

mongos> db.data.stats()

{

"sharded" : true,

"flags" : 1,

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 500000,

"numExtents" : 19,

"size" : 22000084,

"storageSize" : 43614208,

"totalIndexSize" : 14062720,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 14062720

},

"avgObjSize" : 44.000168,

"nindexes" : 1,

"nchunks" : 22,

"shards" : {

"shard1" : {

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 112982,

"size" : 4971232,

"avgObjSize" : 44.00021242321786,

"storageSize" : 11182080,

"numExtents" : 6,

"nindexes" : 1,

"lastExtentSize" : 8388608,

"paddingFactor" : 1,

"flags" : 1,

"totalIndexSize" : 3172288,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 3172288

},

"ok" : 1

},

"shard2" : {

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 124978,

"size" : 5499056,

"avgObjSize" : 44.00019203379795,

"storageSize" : 11182080,

"numExtents" : 6,

"nindexes" : 1,

"lastExtentSize" : 8388608,

"paddingFactor" : 1,

"flags" : 1,

"totalIndexSize" : 3499328,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 3499328

},

"ok" : 1

},

"shard3" : {

"ns" : "test.data",

"count" : 262040,

"size" : 11529796,

"avgObjSize" : 44.000137383605555,

"storageSize" : 21250048,

"numExtents" : 7,

"nindexes" : 1,

"lastExtentSize" : 10067968,

"paddingFactor" : 1,

"flags" : 1,

"totalIndexSize" : 7391104,

"indexSizes" : {

"_id_" : 7391104

},

"ok" : 1

}

},

"ok" : 1

}

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